Fetopathology and developmental pathology of the embryo and fetus
Marta Ježová, Josef Feit et al.
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Atlas of fetal pathology


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Atlas of fetal pathology

Congenital malformations

Physiological developement of an embryo and fetus, growth and changes of the external shape

Congenital malformations and congenital anomalies

Basic terminology

Etiology of congenital anomalies (CA)

Environmental causes of congenital anomalies, congenital infections





Diabetes mellitus (DM) and pregnancy

Diabetic embryopathy

Diabetic fetopathy

Genetic causes of congenital malformations

Chromosomal abnormalities

Down syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Patau syndrome

Edwards syndrome


Single gene disorders

Tuberous sclerosis

Miscellaneous malformation syndromes, sequences and associations, unclassified

Sirenomelia (Mermaid syndrome)

Hydrops fetalis

Immune hydrops (erythroblastosis fetalis, hemolytic disease of the newborn)

Nonimmune hydrops

Hygroma colli cysticum

Pierre-Robin sequence

Caudal regression syndrome (sacral agenesis)

VACTERL association

Pathology of twinning

Complications of monochorionic diamnionic placentation

Chronic twin transfusion syndrome

Acute twin-twin transfusion

Complications of monochorionic monoamnionic placentation

Congenital malformations in twins

Chorangiopagus parasiticus (acardius)

Pathology of higher multiple gestations: triplets


Monstra duplicia

Gemini monochoriati inequales

Duplicitas symmetros

Asymmetric dual monsters

Monstra simplicia

Congenital malformations of individual organ systems

Congenital malformations of the central nervous system

Congenital malformations of the spinal cord

Spina bifida

Myeloschisis (rachischisis posterior)

Congenital malformations of the brain




Arnold-Chiari malformation

Disorders of formation of the structures derived from the mediobasal prosencephalon

Migration disorders

Destructive lesions of fetal brain (disruptions)




Dandy-Walker malformation

Intracranial non-neoplastic cysts

Arachnoid cyst

Neuroepithelial cyst

Congenital malformations of the respiratory system

Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM)

Lobar sequestration

Congenital lobar emphysema

Pulmonary hyperplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Diaphragm and congenital malformations

Congenital malformations of kidneys and efferent urinary tracts

Renal agenesis

Variations of shape and position of the kidneys

Renal cystic disease

Infantile polycystic kidneys (ARKPD)

Renal dysplasia

Adult polycystic kidneys (ADPKD)

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in infant and fetus

Lower urinary tract obstruction

Posterior urethral valves

Congenital tubular renal dysgenesis

Urinary bladder


Congenital malformations of genital system and somatosexual congenital disorders

Somatosexual disorders

Somatosexual disorders with normal karyotype

Pseudohermaphroditism masculinus

Androgen insensitivity syndrome, testicular feminization syndrome, female XY

Pseudohermaphroditism femininus

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Somatosexual disorders with pathologic karyotype

Congenital malformations of female genitalia

Congenital malformations of the internal genitalia

Congenital malformations associated with congenital malformations of urinary system

Congenital malformations of the vulva

Congenital malformations of the male genital organs


Congenital malformations of penis and scrotum

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS)

Congenital tumors

Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Congenital cardiac rhabdomyoma

Congenital heart defects

Defects of heart septum

Atrial septal defects

Ventricular septal defects

AV septal defects

Anomalies of the great arteries

Transposition of the great arteries

Truncus arteriosus

Double-outlet right ventricle

Malformations of the valves

Tricuspid atresia

Stenosis and atresia of the mitral valve, the hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Stenosis of the pulmonary artery

Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum

Tetralogy of Fallot

Aortic stenosis

Malformations of the aortic arch system

Persistence of ductus arteriosus

Coarctation of the aorta

Interruption of the aortic arch

Right-sided aortic arch

Malformations of the venous system

Anomalies of situs and heart position

Di George syndrome

Congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract

Oral cavity and the palate

Cleft lip and palate

Congenital defects of the esophagus


Congenital esophagus stenoses

Congenital malformations of the stomach

Congenital malformations of the intestines


Malrotation of the intestine

Remnants of the omphalomesentric duct

Anorectal malformations


Defects of the abdominal wall



Limb-body wall complex

Pentalogy of Cantrell

Developemental anomalies of the skeleton

Defects of growth of tubular bone and/or spine

Thanatophoric dysplasia

Diastrophic dysplasia

Abnormalities of density of cortical diaphyseal structure or metaphyseal modeling

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Limb malformations

Terminal transverse limb defects

Radial ray defects

Finger anomalies

Club foot

Constriction (amniotic) band syndrome

Placental inflammation

Ascending infections

Placental inflammation, acute

Hematogenous infections

Fetomaternal listeriosis

Pathology of the fetal membranes

Amniotic band syndrome

Meconium staining

Candida infection of the placenta

Pathology of the placenta

Normal placenta

Extrauterine gravidity

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD)

Hydatidiform mole

Complete mole

Partial mole

Invasive mola (mole proliferans, mole destruens)

Gestational choriocarcinoma

Placental site trophoblastic tumor

Placenta and major chromosomal abnormalities

Hydropic placenta

Pathology of the umbilical cord

Abnormal length

Short cord

Long cord

Insertion abnormalities

Abnormal coiling

Umbilical vessels pathology

Umbilical cord accidents which compromise the blood flow

Thrombosis of umbilical blood vessels

Umbilical cord inflammation

Acute funisitis

Subacute necrotizing funisitis

Miscellaneous rare cord lesions