Organs of the digestive system develop mostly from the endoderm. The primitive gut tube is divided into three sections. The tube growths in length and forms a U loop which later rotates counterclockwise. The foregut gives rise to esophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas and liver. Jejunum, ileum and colon (ascending and first 2/3 of transverse colon) develop from the midgut. The hindgut gives rise to the last third of transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. It terminates as common cloaca which is later divided by urorectal septum into ventral urinary component and dorsal rectal component. The face and the oral cavity form between 4 – 8 week of embryonal development from the branchial arches (maxillar, mandibular).
Congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are quite frequent.
Etiology is complex, many of these malformatins are parts of chromosomal aberrations and genetic syndromes. They are ranked among symptoms of intrauterine infection or effect of teratogens. Frequent reason for intestinal discontinuity is disorder of the vascular supply and related ischemia.