+ Umbilical cord accidents which compromise the blood flow
+ Thrombosis of umbilical blood vessels
+ Umbilical cord inflammation
+ Acute funisitis
+ Subacute necrotizing funisitis
+ Miscellaneous rare cord lesions
Neural tube defect involving mostly the lumbosacral region of the spine.
Various subtypes exist:
Spina bifida occulta:
incidence is 1 : 500
one or more vertebral arches failed to close, spinal cord and meninges are normal
intact skin over the defect may be hairy and hyperpigmented
does not cause symptoms, spina bifida occulta is usually diagnosed accidentally
Spina bifida cystica:
incidence is 1 : 1000.
there is a cyst protruding through the defect in the vertebral arches
according to the contents of the cystic protrusion these variants can be recognized:
Meningocele: cystic sac contains dura mater, arachnoid
and cerebrospinal fluid. Neither the spinal cord nor
the spinal nerves are malformed.This occurs in 15% of cases.
Meningomyelocele: the cystic sac also contains the spinal
cord and the spinal nerves (in addition to the meninges),
which adhere to the sides of the sack. This occurs in 85% of cases. Hzdrocephalus
(Arnold Chiari malformation) is invariably associted. Symptomatology corresponds
with localisation of the defect, for example if the defect is in the sacral area,
there is loss of bladder and bowel function. The sac can become infected and there is
a risk of ascendent meningitis. Surgery is necessary right after the birth.