Atlas of Neonatal Pathology
Marta Ježová, Josef Feit
+ Introduction
+ Using this atlas
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+ Neonatal pathology
+ Basic terms and classification of newborn infants
+ The Apgar score
+ Classification of newborn infants by weight and gestation
+ Pathology of gestation length
+ Prematurity
+ Postmaturity (Clifford syndrome)
+ Growth and developement
+ Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), small for gestational age infant (SGA)
+ Large for gestational age infant (LGA)
+ Physical maturity
+ Pathology of prematurity
+ Gross appearance of premature infant
+ Difficulties in maintaining homeostasis
+ Thermoregulation
+ Hypoglycemia
+ Hyperbilirubinemia
+ Fluids and electrolytes
+ Apnea of prematurity
+ Anemia of prematurity
+ Hyaline membrane disease (HMD)
+ Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
+ Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)
+ Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)
+ Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
+ Iatrogenic diseases and damage
+ Respiratory system
+ Injuries caused by endotracheal intubation
+ Pulmonary air leak
+ Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)
+ Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
+ Cardiovascular system
+ Total parenteral nutrition associated hepatic damage
+ Infections
+ Viability, survivability and long term sequelae of prematurity
+ Viability
+ Survivability in prematurity
+ Severe long term sequelae in babies born prematurely
+ Birth asphyxia
+ Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)
+ Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)
+ Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (persistent fetal circulation)
+ Birth trauma
+ Extracranial lesions
+ Soft tissus injuries
+ Intraabdominal injuries
+ Peripheral and cranial nerve injuries
+ Bone injuries
+ Cranial trauma
+ Perinatal infection
+ Intrauterine infections (TORCH group)
+ Sepsis neonatorum
+ Blenorrhea neonatorum
+ HIV infection
+ Stillbirth and perinatal mortality
+ Stillbirth
+ Perinatal mortality
+ Neonatal pathology nonrelated to prematurity, birth asphyxia or infection
+ Congenital anomalies in liveborn infants
+ Kernicterus
+ Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
+ Spontenous gastric perforation in a neonate
Congenital anomalies in liveborn infants

3% of newborns have a major anomaly defined as an anomaly having either cosmetic or functional significance.

Some are detected ar birth but some such as cardiac defects or renal anomalies may not become clinically apparent until years.

The most common malformation among liveborn infants in the Czech republic are various heart defects (40% of all anomalies diagnosed in the first year of life). Hypospadia and cryptorchidism are common in males, malformations of limbs and congenital luxation of hip joint are common in females. The most common chromosomal abnormality is Down syndrome which affects approximately 0.5 % liveborn infants/45 newborns annually. Renal anomalies and cleft lip and palate are also frequent.

Clinical signs
  • congenital anomalies as a cause of death
  • congenital heart defects
  • major CNS malformations
  • chromosomal syndromes
  • pulmonary anomalies  —  lung hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia

Transpositon of great arteries in term newborn who died several hours after birth with signs of severe cyanosis: Transposition of the great arteries, Macro, autopsy (73890)

Hypoplasic left heart syndrome, the baby died at the age of 4 weeks: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Macro, autopsy (73889)

Early neonatal death from severe lung hypoplasia and diaphragmatic malformation: Hypoplasia of the lungs, Macro, autopsy (73817) Hypoplasia of the lungs, Macro, autopsy (73816)

Early neonatal death in premature newborn born at 32 week's gestation with birth weight 1200 g. Death occured early after birth because of lung hypoplasia with eventration of the diaphragm. Chromosomal aberation was suspected because of abnormal phenotype but unofortunatelly postmortal examination of karyotype was unsuccesful. Chromosomal abberation, Macro, autopsy (73885) Chromosomal abberation, Macro, autopsy (73886)