Atlas of Neonatal Pathology
Marta Ježová, Josef Feit
+ Introduction
+ Using this atlas
+ Conditions of using this atlas
+ Technical notes
+ Hardware
+ Software
+ How to use the atlas
+ Navigating through the text pages
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+ Logos and labels
+ What will you need to use the atlas
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+ Support
+ Support
+ Neonatal pathology
+ Basic terms and classification of newborn infants
+ The Apgar score
+ Classification of newborn infants by weight and gestation
+ Pathology of gestation length
+ Prematurity
+ Postmaturity (Clifford syndrome)
+ Growth and developement
+ Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), small for gestational age infant (SGA)
+ Large for gestational age infant (LGA)
+ Physical maturity
+ Pathology of prematurity
+ Gross appearance of premature infant
+ Difficulties in maintaining homeostasis
+ Thermoregulation
+ Hypoglycemia
+ Hyperbilirubinemia
+ Fluids and electrolytes
+ Apnea of prematurity
+ Anemia of prematurity
+ Hyaline membrane disease (HMD)
+ Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
+ Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)
+ Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)
+ Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
+ Iatrogenic diseases and damage
+ Respiratory system
+ Injuries caused by endotracheal intubation
+ Pulmonary air leak
+ Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)
+ Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
+ Cardiovascular system
+ Total parenteral nutrition associated hepatic damage
+ Infections
+ Viability, survivability and long term sequelae of prematurity
+ Viability
+ Survivability in prematurity
+ Severe long term sequelae in babies born prematurely
+ Birth asphyxia
+ Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)
+ Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)
+ Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (persistent fetal circulation)
+ Birth trauma
+ Extracranial lesions
+ Soft tissus injuries
+ Intraabdominal injuries
+ Peripheral and cranial nerve injuries
+ Bone injuries
+ Cranial trauma
+ Perinatal infection
+ Intrauterine infections (TORCH group)
+ Sepsis neonatorum
+ Blenorrhea neonatorum
+ HIV infection
+ Stillbirth and perinatal mortality
+ Stillbirth
+ Perinatal mortality
+ Neonatal pathology nonrelated to prematurity, birth asphyxia or infection
+ Congenital anomalies in liveborn infants
+ Kernicterus
+ Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
+ Spontenous gastric perforation in a neonate
Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

  • Vitamin K is required for production of coagulation factors II., VII., IX. and X. in the liver
  • Newborns are relatively vitamin K deficient because of
    • low vitamin K stores at birth
    • low levels of vitamin K in the breast milk
    • sterility of the intestine
Clinical signs

Bleeding from umbilicus, mucous membmranes, gastrointestinal tract, venipunctures, large cephalhematoma or skin bruising. Intracranial bleeding is rare.

Bleeding is a problem exlusively in breastfed infants. Formulas contain supplemental vitamin K.

The occurence is rare due to routine prophylaxis (intramuscular administration of vitamin K immeditely after birth, regular administration of vitamin K per os to all breastfed infants in the neontal period).

  • Early onset disease  —  less than 24 hours after birth, occurs rarely with maternal medication that interferes with vitamin K
  • Classic onset  —  2 – 7 days after birth in breastfed neonates
  • Late onset  —  after 2 weeks of life, risk factors besides breastfeeding include diarrhea, hepatitis, cystic fibrosis, absence of prophylaxis. Late onset disease tends to be more serious with higher occurence of intracranial bleeding.